Growing bearded Iris is simple, straightforward and easily managed by the beginner gardener or master gardener alike. The Iris family is a big one that includes numerous species and an uncountable number of hybrids cultivars created by Iris breeders around the world. One of the most widely grown are the Bearded Iris. The "beard' on a bearded Iris refers to the fuzzy growth on the tops of the three "fall" (downward growing) petals that surround the three "standard" (upward growing) petals. They come in a wide array of solid and bi-colored combinations and have been a favorite garden flower for many, many generations here in the US and Europe.
Growing Bearded Iris: When and Where To Plant
Bearded Iris grow well across most of the US (except for the Gulf Coast, Florida and the Deep South). For western gardeners, growing bearded Iris is quite straightforward, as these tough, durable plants thrive in our dry climates requiring only occasional watering once established. When planted into fast draining soils with full sun exposure, they are long lived and multiply nicely to form showy blooming clumps. Bearded Iris can be planted as potted plants in spring or as bare-root rhizomes in July, August and September. Be sure to get your bare-root Iris in the ground at least 6 weeks before the first average frost date in your area to make sure they are established before the ground freezes in winter.
Growing Bearded Iris: Keep Them Blooming with Regular Fertilization
In the garden, Bearded Iris are heavy feeders and need regular fertilization to bloom strongly and multiply. I recommend top dressing with a mix of high quality compost, Yum Yum Mix and some soft rock phosphate or bat guano in the spring and again about a month after they have bloomed. Just scatter several cups of this soil building mix in a ring around the clumps. Avoid high nitrogen chemical fertilizers as degrades the soil over time and promotes leaf growth at the expense of flowering.
Here are a few of my favorite Beard Iris cultivars:
'Paul Black' - With dark purple standards and falls and a wonderful bright orange beard, this tall grower should be planted at the back of the border. Nice with other yellow flowered perennials.
'Amarillo' - This glowing deep yellow Iris is a stunner and especially nice planted with blue and purple flowered perennials. Medium sized at 36" in height.
Variegated Sweet Iris (Iris pallida 'Variegata') - This sweetly scented Iris has both handsome violet-blue flowers and variegated foliage with ribbons of green, white and creamy-yellow. I enjoy this one as much for its colorful foliage as for its fragrant flowers.
Growing Bearded Iris With Great Companion Plants
To complement your colorful bearded Iris flowers, it's advisable to plant other flowering perennial companions that bloom in late spring and enjoy drier soils and full sun.
'Little Night' European Sage (Salvia sylvestris) is a natural to combine with the yellow, pink and apricot blooming Iris. 'Little Night' is a compact grower that should be planted in front of the Iris clumps where its deep indigo blue late spring flower spikes offer a stunning color combination and contrasting shape to the ruffled Iris blooms.
'Shimmer' Evening Primrose (Oenothera fremontii) has attractive green turning to silver foliage and bright lemon-yellow flowers to complement the Iris. 'Shimmer' grows to form a low growing mat of foliage that contrast nicely in color and shapes with the sword-like Iris leaves.