Summer Dreams Pre-Planned Garden Featuring native plants: Coneflower Rudbeckia Astache Obedient- PlantSummer Dreams Pre-Planned Garden Featuring native plants: Coneflower Rudbeckia Astache Obedient- Plant

Understanding The Growing Requirements of Native Plants

 

By Chief Horticulturist David Salman

Incorporating native plants into your landscape and landscape designs can be a very gratifying experience.The key to success with native plants is learning where the plants are from to understand the climate and growing conditions of their native habitats.

 

Many of the non-native perennials that dominate our landscapes have been widely cultivated for many years in Europe and the United States, and have very wide tolerances as to the type of climates they enjoy and their cultural needs in the garden. This is in large part because over the years, plants that were difficult to grow and propagate using traditional methods disappeared from the trade.

Many native plant introductions are very new to the gardening public, and their cultural needs less understood. However, we are already finding that many natives are also easy to grow and propagate, and have become common in gardens across the country. Our general knowledge about a native plant's soil preferences, sun exposure, moisture needs, and tolerances must be understood. Once you know your native plant's needs, you can easily grow resilient, beautiful plants in your garden.

A meadow-style garden with Aster, Black Eyed Susan, and Native Ornamental Grasses. Photo By Saxon Holt.A meadow-style garden with Aster, Black Eyed Susan, and Native Ornamental Grasses. Photo By Saxon Holt.
A meadow-style garden with Aster, Black Eyed Susan, and Native Ornamental Grasses. Photo By Saxon Holt.

Gardening With Native Plants: Moisture Compatibility

The compatibility of a given native plant to your local area is highly dependent on that plant's need for moisture. The amount of precipitation that plants receive in their habitats is a very important piece of cultural information. Looking at a precipitation map of the United States the pattern shows us that, in general, as we move west from the eastern seaboard toward California the terrain becomes drier and drier. Thus plants native to the various desert regions of the western United States will not be well suited to average garden conditions in moist midwestern or eastern states. Ohio. However, in my experience, a native plant from Ohio, for example, may do fine in Santa Fe's high desert climate if given enriched soil, sufficient irrigation, and afternoon shade to avoid heat stroke.

Gardening With Native Plants: The Right Soil

Soil chemistry and soil drainage are two other critical factors in plant growth. My experience has been that native plants from the East and Midwest make the transition to western growing conditions more easily than western natives transition the other direction. It would seem that many western plants are more specialized and closely matched to the harsh, dry conditions of their habitats and are less adaptable to richer soils and more moisture. But like all generalizations there are notable (and often surprising) exceptions.

Soil Chemistry

  • Western soils tend to be very mineral (low in organic materials) and alkaline.
  • Many Midwestern soils are humus rich and their pH ranges from neutral to acidic.
  • Eastern soils can be much more variable, but in general are acidic.

Moving western natives to eastern gardens: Gardeners with acidic soil conditions must raise the soil pH using additives, such as lime and wood ashes, to provide the alkaline conditions required by many western natives. Many western natives also need higher trace mineral levels and benefit greatly by using trace mineral fertilizers like Planters II (rock dust in organic gardening circles).

Moving eastern natives to western gardens: moving eastern plants to the west can be accomplished using lots of greensand and soil sulfur to bring down the soil alkalinity. However, acid-loving plants are very difficult to grow long-term without constant acidification efforts and use of rainwater to irrigate. (Many western regions have very hard, alkaline well water.)

Soil Drainage

Soil drainage is a critical but often overlooked factor in growing native plants.

Moving western natives to eastern gardens: Many western natives require dry, fast draining soil. When moving western plants to wetter climates, sandy and sandy/loam soils provide drier, faster-draining conditions than clay. It is more challenging when we move dry clay lovers from west to east than vice versa. Eastern clay soils that stay wet from plentiful rain and snow will be deadly for dry clay lovers from the west. A sand/gravel/clay soil mixture used in a raised bed or berm is often the best solution to this dilemma. Learn More: How To Create Well-Drained Soil

Moving eastern natives to western gardens: Natives that like moister, high humus soils can be accommodated out west by incorporating generous amounts of compost and Broadleaf P4 water retaining crystals into the soil, and irrigating more frequently. Clay loving plants are common in all areas of the United States.

Swallowtail Butterfly and Bees visiting nectar-rich Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)Swallowtail Butterfly and Bees visiting nectar-rich Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)
Swallowtail Butterfly and Bees visiting nectar-rich Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)

Native Plants of the Midwest and Northeast

I'm not as familiar with native plants from the Midwest and eastern United States, as I don't often have the opportunity to see and study these plants in their native habitats; so I look to the many native plant experts in these regions and trial their introductions in Santa Fe. Interestingly, these regions offer many summer- and fall-blooming species that are invaluable for coloring the garden when the many late spring and early summer blooming natives have past. (Remember, the compatibility of a given native plant to your local area is highly dependent on that plant's need for moisture.)

Almost all of the above natives are highly valued nectar sources for adult butterflies.

Purple Poppy Mallow (Callirhoe)Purple Poppy Mallow (Callirhoe)
Purple Poppy Mallow (Callirhoe)

Native Plants of The Great Plains

The Great Plains provide a treasure trove of tough but beautiful native plants. These plants are adapted to surviving extremes of temperatures and moisture as well as grazing animals. They favor well-drained, not-too-rich soils with a neutral to alkaline pH. Their natural climatic precipitation arrives during the winter, spring and sporadically during the heat of the summer months.

Phemerosa calycinum: A Native Garden Favorite

Another outstanding succulent from the plains is the everblooming, magenta-flowered Phemerosa calycinum (Talinum), also known as Fame Flower. This quirky little native's odd behavior is an excellent example of why some folks avoid native plants, thinking they are too hard to grow—but it's actually a showy, easy-to-grow plant once you understand its needs. I recommend it to everybody.

Talinum likes dry, sandy or sandy/loam soils. It is very slow to wake from its winter slumber, waiting until the late spring frosts have past. It also withers (goes dormant) before frost, using short days as its dormancy trigger. If you didn't know better you would think the plant either died suddenly in the fall or didn't make it through the winter. However it easily survives the cold winters as a shallow rooted succulent crown (stem at the junction of the roots and above ground stem) that looks like a fat twig. Be patient in the spring because it returns to get bigger and showier every year.

Other Native Garden Favorites From the Great Plains

Other indispensable flowering perennials from the Great Plains include:

The Great Plants for the Great Plains program, sponsored by the Nebraska Statewide Arboretum, and supported by Nebraska Extension nurseries that grow and propagate new finds, is an excellent program devoted to bringing natives for the plains into cultivation.

Learn More About High Country Gardens Native Plants

Explore High Country Gardens Native Plants

  1. Pink and White Penstemon mexicali Red Rocks, Penstemon mexicali Red Rocks, Red Rocks Hybrid Beardtongue

    Penstemon Red Rocks (Beardtongue) is a superb hybrid variety that blooms most of the summer with large rose-pink flowers. The plants are vigorous and have attractive glossy green fol...

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    Red Rocks Penstemon Red Rocks Hybrid Beardtongue Penstemon mexicali Red Rocks
    $10.99
    Per Plant - 5" Deep Pot
    Penstemon Red Rocks (Beardtongue) is a superb hybrid variety that blooms most of the summer with large rose-pink flowers. The plants are vigorous and have attractive glossy green foliage. A 1999 Plant Select winner. Drought resistant/drought tolerant plant (xeric).
  2. Worry-Free Bee Balm Collection

    The Worry-Free Bee Balm Collection features three native perennial favorites to attract hummingbirds and butterflies. These Monarda are easy-to-grow, deer and rabbit resistant, and d...

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    $102.99
    Per Collection of 6
    The Worry-Free Bee Balm Collection features three native perennial favorites to attract hummingbirds and butterflies. These Monarda are easy-to-grow, deer and rabbit resistant, and developed for disease resistance. Red, raspberry, and lavender-pink flowers add texture and color to your garden, and will naturalize over time. Glossy, aromatic foliage will look great all season. Collection of six plants.
  3. Zauschneria latifolia Woody's Peach Surprise Close Up

    Zauschneria latifolia Woody‚s Peach Surprise is a low-growing form of Fire Chalice flowering with light, peach-pink flowers, an unusual color in this genus of orange and scarle...

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    Per Plant - 5" Deep Pot
    Zauschneria latifolia Woody's Peach Surprise is a low-growing form of Fire Chalice flowering with light, peach-pink flowers, an unusual color in this genus of orange and scarlet bloomers. This perennial colors the garden in late summer and early fall.
  4. Western Native Penstemon Collection

    Our Western Native Penstemon Collection will brighten your garden with jewel-toned blooms from mid-spring to early summer. A favorite of hummingbirds, Penstemons are low-maintenance ...

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    $138.99
    Per Collection of 12
    Our Western Native Penstemon Collection will brighten your garden with jewel-toned blooms from mid-spring to early summer. A favorite of hummingbirds, Penstemons are low-maintenance native wildflowers with abundant blooms, and these four native cultivars are favorites for Western gardens. They’re deer and rabbit resistant, and love hot, dry growing conditions, so they’re an easy-to-grow addition to rock gardens and challenging sunny sites that need a pop of color to attract pollinators. Collection of 12 plants.
  5. Philadelphus microphyllus Desert Snow Mock Orange

    Desert Snow Littleleaf Mockorange (Philadelphus microphyllus ‚Desert Snow‚) is an especially showy selection of our native Littleleaf Mockorange. It blooms in late spring...

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    $15.99
    Per Plant - 5" Deep Pot
    Desert Snow Littleleaf Mockorange (Philadelphus microphyllus 'Desert Snow') is an especially showy selection of our native Littleleaf Mockorange. It blooms in late spring with huge, highly fragrant white flowers.
  6. Zauschneria canum v. latifolium Northfork Coral

    ‘Northfork Coral’ is a uniquely colored selection of hummingbird trumpet that blooms in late summer with showy coral-orange flowers. The foliage makes a nice six-inch tal...

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    $13.49
    Per Plant - 5" Deep Pot
    ‘Northfork Coral’ is a uniquely colored selection of hummingbird trumpet that blooms in late summer with showy coral-orange flowers. The foliage makes a nice six-inch tall bright green mat, spreading slowly via underground roots. A little extra water when blooming increases the flowers. Drought resistant/drought tolerant plant (xeric).
  7. Silky Thread Grass, Nassella tenuissima

    Nassella tenuissima (Silky Thread Grass) brings gossimer grace to any spot where it‚s planted. It blooms from late spring into late summer with plumes of silky flowers that sw...

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    As low as $11.99
    Per Plant - 5" Deep Pot
    Nassella tenuissima (Silky Thread Grass) brings gossimer grace to any spot where it's planted. It blooms from late spring into late summer with plumes of silky flowers that sway back and forth in the slightest breeze. Grow readily in most any soil with full to partial sun. Re-seeds itself readily. Not for sale in CA. Drought resistant/drought tolerant plant (xeric).
  8. Aster oblongifolius Raydon's Favorite Courtesy of Northcreek Nurseries

    Aster oblongifolius ‚Raydon‚s Favorite‚ (Aromatic Aster) is an essential fall-blooming perennial with showy violet-blue flowers that attract butterflies. A highly r...

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    Raydon's Favorite Aromatic Aster Raydon's Favorite Aromatic Aster Aster oblongifolius Raydon's Favorite
    $10.99
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Text by Founder and Chief Horticulturist David Salman. © All articles are copyrighted by High Country Gardens. Republication is prohibited without permission.